Hagia Sophia can be a former Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later a mosque, and today a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. From your date of that dedication in 360 until 1453, it served as the Greek Patriarchal cathedral of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it absolutely was changed into a Roman Catholic cathedral beneath Latin Patriarch of Constantinople from the Western Crusader established Latin Empire. Your house was a mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931, when it had been secularized. It was opened to be a museum on 1 February 1935.
The Church was dedicated to the Logos, the next person on the Holy Trinity, its dedication feast going down on 25 December, the anniversary from the Birth of the incarnation on the Logos in Christ. Though it may also be often called Sancta Sophia , sophia is the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom “Church in the Holy Wisdom of God”.
Famous specifically because of its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is believed to have “changed a brief history of architecture.” It was the biggest cathedral on earth for almost 1000 years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. The actual building was originally constructed as being a church between 532 and 537 about the orders on the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and was the third Church from the Holy Wisdom to occupy your website, the previous two having both been destroyed by rioters. It principal purpose is from the Greek scientists Isidore of Miletus, a physicist, and Anthemius of Tralles, a mathematician.
The church contained a big number of holy relics and featured, amongst other things, a 49-foot (15 m) silver iconostasis. It was the seat with the Patriarch of Constantinople and the religious point of interest from the Eastern Orthodox Church for almost one thousand years. It may be the church by which Cardinal Humbert in 1054 excommunicated Michael I Cerularius – that’s commonly considered the start of the Great Schism.
In 1453, Constantinople was conquered from the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mehmed II, who subsequently ordered your house converted into a mosque. The bells, altar, iconostasis, and sacrificial vessels were removed and a lot of in the mosaics were plastered over. Islamic features – such as the mihrab, minbar, and four minarets – were added whilst in the possession of the Ottomans. It remained a mosque until 1931 when it absolutely was closed on the public for four years. It was re-opened in 1935 as a museum from the Republic of Turkey.
For pretty much 500 years the principal mosque of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia served as a model for a lot of other Ottoman mosques, such as Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque of Istanbul), the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque as well as the Kılıç Ali Paşa Mosque.
Third church (current structure)
On 23 February 532, only a few days after the destruction on the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I elected to construct 1 / 3 and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.
Justinian chose physicist Isidore of Miletus and mathematician Anthemius of Tralles as architects; Anthemius, however, died inside first year on the endeavor. The development is described from the Byzantine historian Procopius’ On Buildings (Peri ktismatōn, Latin: De aedificiis). The emperor had material brought from throughout the empire – like Hellenistic columns on the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, large stones from quarries in porphyry from Egypt, green marble from Thessaly, black stone in the Bosporus region, and yellow stone from Syria. A lot more than 10000 individuals were employed. This new church was contemporaneously recognized as an essential work of architecture. The theories of Heron of Alexandria might have been helpful to address the challenges presented by building this kind of expansive dome over so large a space. The emperor, with the patriarch Eutychius, inaugurated the newest basilica on 27 December 537 with much pomp. The mosaics inside the church were, however, only completed underneath the reign of Emperor Justin II (565–578).
Hagia Sophia was the seat in the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople as well as a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, like coronations. The basilica also offered asylum to wrongdoers.
Earthquakes in August 553 as well as on 14 December 557 caused cracks however dome and eastern half-dome. The primary dome collapsed completely during a subsequent earthquake on 7 May 558,destroying the ambon, altar, and ciborium. The crash was due mainly on the too much bearing load also to the enormous shearing load with the dome, which was too flat. These caused the deformation from the piers which sustained the dome. The emperor ordered an instant restoration. He entrusted it to Isidorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus, who used lighter materials and elevated the dome by “30 feet” (about 6.25 metres (20.5 ft)) – giving your house its current interior height of 55.6 metres (182 ft). Moreover, Isidorus changed the dome type, erecting a ribbed dome with pendentives, whose diameter lay between 32.7 and 33.5 m. This reconstruction, giving the church its present 6th-century form, was finished in 562. The Byzantine poet Paul the Silentiary composed an extended epic poem (still extant), called Ekphrasis, to the rededication in the basilica presided over by Patriarch Eutychius on 23 December 562.
In 726, the emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a series of edicts contrary to the veneration of images, ordering the army to destroy all icons – ushering within the duration of Byzantine iconoclasm. At that time, all religious pictures and statues were stripped away from the Hagia Sophia. From brief reprieve under Empress Irene (797–802), the iconoclasts designed a comeback. Emperor Theophilus (829–842) was strongly influenced by Islamic art, which forbids graven images.[clarification needed] He’d a 2-winged bronze door along with his monograms installed on the southern entrance on the church.
The basilica suffered damage, first in a great fire in 859, and again in the earthquake on 8 January 869, that developed a half-dome collapse. Emperor Basil I ordered the church repaired.
Following your great earthquake of 25 October 989, which collapsed the Western dome arch, the Byzantine emperor Basil II demanded the Armenian architect Trdat,creator of the great churches of Ani and Argina, to direct the repairs. He erected again and reinforced the fallen dome arch, and rebuilt the west side in the dome with 15 dome ribs. The extent on the damage required six numerous years of repair and reconstruction; the church was re-opened on 13 May 994. By the end with the reconstruction, the church’s decorations were renovated, such as the additions of paintings of four immense cherubs, a new depiction of Christ on the dome, and on the apse a different depiction with the Virgin Mary holding Jesus relating to the apostles Peter and Paul. For the great side arches were painted the prophets and the teachers in the church.
In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae (“Book of Ceremonies”), Emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote reveal account on the ceremonies located in the Hagia Sophia through the emperor and also the patriarch.
Upon the capture of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated through the Latin Christians. The Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates described the capture of Constantinople; many reputed relics in the church – for example a stone through the tomb of Jesus, the Virgin Mary’s milk, the shroud of Jesus, and bones of countless saints – were shipped to churches in the West and may be viewed there now in numerous museums. Throughout the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral. Baldwin I of Constantinople was crowned emperor on 16 May 1204 in Hagia Sophia, in a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices. Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the sack and invasion on the city with the Latin Crusaders in 1204, is buried inside church. The tomb inscription carrying his name, that’s explore a floor decoration, was spat upon by the majority of the angry Byzantines who recaptured Constantinople in 1261. However, restoration led from the brothers Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati over the period 1847–1849 cast doubt upon the authenticity of the doge’s grave; it is more probably a symbolic memorial rather than burial ground.
Following recapture in 1261 because of the Byzantines, the church is at a dilapidated state. In 1317, emperor Andronicus II ordered four new buttresses to be integrated the eastern and northern regions of the church, financing these with the inheritance of his deceased wife, Irene. New cracks developed inside dome as soon as the earthquake of October 1344, as well as some areas of the dwelling collapsed on 19 May 1346; consequently, the church was closed until 1354, when repairs were undertaken by architects Astras and Peralta.